• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


A bridge between Europe and Africa, the Iberian peninsula has absorbed influences from both regions. The original inhabitants were Iberians, who spoke a non Indo-European language, and Celtic peoples, who were mainly to the north and west of the peninsula. From the 8th century BC the Phoenicians established trading colonies such as Gades (Cádiz), importing metalworking skills, music and literacy in the form of a semi-syllabic script. The Greeks established a trading settlement in Catalonia named Empirion (now Ampurias) around 575 BC, and there is evidence of other Greek and Phoenician settlements along the Mediterranean coast.


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Further Reading

  1. Barton, Simon, A History of Spain. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004Google Scholar
  2. Carr, Raymond (ed.) Spain: A History. OUP, 2000Google Scholar
  3. Closa, Carlos and Heywood, Paul, Spain and the European Union. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004Google Scholar
  4. Conversi, D., The Basques, The Catalans and Spain. C. Hurst, London, 1997Google Scholar
  5. Harrison, Joseph and Corkhill, David, Spain: A Modern European Economy. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 2004Google Scholar
  6. Heywood, P., The Government and Politics of Spain. London, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hooper, J., The New Spaniards. 2nd ed. [of The Spaniards] London, 1995Google Scholar
  8. Powell, C., Juan Carlos of Spain: Self-Made Monarch. London and New York, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Shields, Graham J., Spain. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994.Google Scholar
  10. Shields, Graham J., Madrid. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1996Google Scholar
  11. National Library: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid.Google Scholar
  12. National Statistical Office: Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), Paseo de la Castellana, 183, Madrid.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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