• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Tripoli fell under Ottoman domination in the 16th century and although in 1711 the Arab population secured some measure of independence, the country came under the direct rule of Turkey in 1835. In 1911 Italy occupied Tripoli and in 1912, by the Treaty of Ouchy, Turkey recognized the sovereignty of Italy in Tripoli. During the Second World War, the British army expelled the Italians and their German allies, and Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were placed under British, and Fezzan under French, military administration. Tis continued until 1950 under a UN directive. Libya became an independent, sovereign kingdom with the former Amir of Cyrenaica, Muhammad Idris al Senussi, as king on 24 Dec. 1951. King Idris was deposed in Sept. 1969 by a group of army ofcers, 12 of whom formed the Revolutionary Command Council which, chaired by Col. Muammar Qadhaf, proclaimed the Libyan Arab Republic. In 1977 the Revolutionary Command Council was superseded by a more democratic People’s Congress. Qadhaf remained head of state. Troughout the 1980s Libya had constant disagreements with its neighbours and its relations with the USA and other Western countries deteriorated, culminating in the US bombing of the capital in April 1986 to punish Qadhaf for his alleged support of international terrorism.


International Terrorism General People British Army Trade Embargo Armed Helicopter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. Blundy, D. and Lycett, A., Qadhaf and the Libyan Revolution. London, 1987Google Scholar
  2. Davis, J., Libyan Politics: Tribe and Revolution. London, 1988Google Scholar
  3. Harris, L. C., Libya: Qadhaf’s Revolution and the Modern State. Boulder (CO) and London, 1986Google Scholar
  4. Pazzanita, A. G., the Maghreb. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1998Google Scholar
  5. Simons, G., Libya: the Struggle for Survival. London, 1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Vandewalle, D. (ed.) Qadhaf’s Libya, 1969–1994. London, 1995Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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