The ruling dynasty was founded by Sheikh Sabah al-Awwal, who ruled from 1756 to 1772. In 1899 Sheikh Mubarak concluded a treaty with Great Britain wherein, in return for the assurance of British protection, he undertook to support British interests. In 1914 the British Government recognized Kuwait as an independent government under British protection. On 19 June 1961 an agreement reafrmed the independence and sovereignty of Kuwait and recognized the Government of Kuwait’s responsibility for the conduct of internal and external afairs. On 2 Aug. 1990 Iraqi forces invaded the country. Following the expiry of the date set by the UN for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces, an air ofensive was launched by coalition forces, followed by a land attack on 24 Feb. 1991. Iraqi forces were routed and Kuwait City was liberated on 26 Feb. On 10 Nov. 1994 Iraq recognized the independence and boundaries of Kuwait. In 2006 Sheikh Jaber, who had been Amir since 1977, died and was replaced by Sheikh Sabah.
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