• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Estonia was part of the Holy Roman Empire until it became a Swedish possession in the 17th century. On Sweden’s defeat by Peter the Great, Estonia passed to the Russian Empire in 1721. The workers’ and soldiers’ Soviets, which came to prominence in 1917, were overthrown with the assistance of British naval forces in May 1919 and a democratic republic proclaimed. In March 1934 this regime was, in turn, overthrown by a fascist coup. The secret protocol of the Soviet-German agreement of 23 Aug. 1939 assigned Estonia to the Soviet sphere of interest. An ultimatum (16 June 1940) led to the formation of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. At a referendum in March 1991, 77•8% of votes cast were in favour of independence. A fully independent status was conceded by the USSR State Council on 6 Sept. 1991. Estonia was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1993, and became a member of NATO in March 2004 and the European Union in May 2004.


Prime Minister Electoral College Public Service Broadcasting Supreme Council Coalition Party 
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Further Reading

  1. Statistical Office of Estonia. Statistical Yearbook. Google Scholar
  2. Ministry of the Economy. Estonian Economy. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  3. Hood, N., et al., (eds.) Transition in the Baltic States. London, 1997Google Scholar
  4. Lieven, A., The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence. 2nd ed. Yale Univ. Press, 1994Google Scholar
  5. Misiunas, R.-J. and Taagepera, R., The Baltic States: Years of Dependence 1940–1991. 2nd ed., Farnborough, 1993Google Scholar
  6. Smith, I. A. and Grunts, M. V., The Baltic States. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1993Google Scholar
  7. Taagepera, R., Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder (CO), 1993Google Scholar
  8. National Statistical Office: Statistical Office of Estonia, Tallinn.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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