• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


A sovereign kingdom in the Himalayas, Bhutan was governed by a spiritual ruler and a temporal ruler—the Dharma and Deb Raja—from the 17th century. The interior was organized into districts controlled by governors and fort commanders. These officials formed the electoral council appointing the Deb Raja. During the 19th century civil wars were fought between district governors for the office of the Deb Raja. The election became a formality and the governors of Tongsa and Paro were the most frequently chosen because they were the strongest. In 1863 a British attempt to bring stability to Bhutan led to war on the frontier with India.


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Further Reading

  1. Crossette, B., So Close to Heaven: The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas. New York, 1995Google Scholar
  2. Das, B. N., Mission to Bhutan: a Nation in Transition. New Delhi, 1995Google Scholar
  3. Hutt, M., Bhutan: Perspectives on Conflict and Dissent. London, 1994Google Scholar
  4. Savada, A. M. (ed.) Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies. Washington, D.C., 1993Google Scholar
  5. Sinha, A. C., Bhutan: Ethnic Identity and National Dilemma. New Delhi, 1998Google Scholar
  6. National Statistical Office: Central Statistical Organization, Thimphu.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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