Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The first known inhabitants were a mix of Iberians, who spoke a non Indo-European language, and Celtic peoples, who were mainly in the north and west of the peninsula. From the 8th century BC the Phoenicians established trading colonies such as Gades (Cádiz), importing metalworking, music and literacy in the form of a semi-syllabic script. From around 215 BC the Iberian Peninsula was a battleground for the Romans and the Carthaginians. Fighting between the two powers continued until the Carthaginians were forced off the peninsula in 206 BC, after which Roman laws and customs were gradually adopted.


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Further Reading

  1. Barton, Simon, A History of Spain. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004Google Scholar
  2. Carr, Raymond (ed.) Spain: A History. OUP, 2000Google Scholar
  3. Closa, Carlos and Heywood, Paul, Spain and the European Union. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004Google Scholar
  4. Conversi, D., The Basques, The Catalans and Spain. Hurst, London, 1997Google Scholar
  5. Harrison, Joseph and Corkhill, David, Spain: A Modern European Economy. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 2004Google Scholar
  6. Heywood, P., The Government and Politics of Spain. London, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hooper, J., The New Spaniards. 2nd ed. [of The Spaniards] London, 1995Google Scholar
  8. Péréz-Díaz, V. M., The Return of Civil Society: the Emergence of Democratic Spain. Harvard Univ. Press, 1993Google Scholar
  9. Powell, C., Juan Carlos of Spain: Self-Made Monarch. London and New York, 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Shields, Graham J., Spain. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994.—Madrid. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1996Google Scholar
  11. National library: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid.Google Scholar
  12. National statistical office: Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), Paseo de la Castellana, 183, Madrid.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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