• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


In the 7th and 8th centuries Slavic peoples settled on the forested plains between the Odra and Vistula rivers. In 966 a Polanie (‘plain dwellers’) state was founded by Mieszko I, of the Piast dynasty, who placed Poland under the Holy Roman See in 991. Mongol invasions in 1241–42 laid waste much of Poland and in 1308 the Teutonic Knights captured Gdañsk (Danzig), cutting off Poland’s access to the sea. In 1386 the marriage of Jagiełło, grand duke of Lithuania, and Jadwiga, daughter of King Louis, brought Lithuania and Poland into personal union. The Jagiełłonian period was an economic and cultural golden age. The Accord of Lublin in 1569 created a political federation, the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania, to protect the alliance against an aggressive Russia under Ivan the Terrible. The death in 1572 of the last Jagiełłonian, Sigismund (Zygmunt) II, introduced a non-hereditary elective monarchy. Many foreigners were elected, including Prince István Báthory of Transylvania, who defeated Ivan the Terrible and won back territories lost to Russia.


Foreign Direct Investment Parliamentary Election Deputy Prime Minister Vistula River International Flight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Rzeczpospolita Polska


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office, Rocznik Statystyczny. Annual.—Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland.—Statistical Bulletin. Monthly.Google Scholar
  2. Lukowski, Jerzy and Zawadzki, Hubert, A Concise History of Poland. CUP, 2001Google Scholar
  3. Mitchell, K. D. (ed.) Political Pluralism in Hungary and Poland: Perspectives on the Reforms. New York, 1992Google Scholar
  4. Prazmowska, Anita J., History of Poland. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2004Google Scholar
  5. Sanford, G. and Gozdecka-Sanford, A., Poland. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1993Google Scholar
  6. Sikorski, R., The Polish House: An Intimate History of Poland. London, 1997; US title: Full Circle. New York, 1997Google Scholar
  7. Slay, B., The Polish Economy: Crisis, Reform and Transformation. Princeton Univ. Press, 1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Staar, R. F. (ed.) Transition to Democracy in Poland. New York, 1993Google Scholar
  9. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Central Europe Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar
  10. Wedel, J., The Unplanned Society: Poland During and After Communism. Columbia Univ. Press, 1992Google Scholar
  11. National library: Biblioteka Narodowa, Rakowiecka 6, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  12. National statistical office: Central Statistical Office, Aleje Niepodległoœci 208, 00–925 Warsaw.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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