• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Incas of Peru were conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century and subsequent Spanish colonial settlement made Peru the most important of the Spanish viceroyalties in South America. On 28 July 1821 Peru declared its independence, but it was not until after a war which ended in 1824 that the country gained its freedom. In a war with Chile (1879–83) Peru’s capital, Lima, was captured and she lost some of her southern territory. Tacna, in the far south of the country, remained in Chilean control from 1880 until 1929. In 1924 Dr Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre founded the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana to oppose the dictatorial government then in power. The party was banned between 1931 and 1945 and between 1948 and 1956 its leader failed regularly in the presidential elections but it was at times the largest party in Congress. The closeness of the 1962 elections led Gen. Ricardo Pérez Godoy, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs-of-Staff, to seize power. A coup led by Gen. Nicolás Lindley López deposed him in 1963. There followed, after elections, a period of civilian rule but the military staged yet another coup in 1968. In 1978–79 a constituent assembly drew up a new constitution, after which a civilian government was installed.

República del Perú


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Further Reading

  1. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática.—Anuario Estadistico del Perú.—Perú: Compendio Estadístico. Annual.—Boletin de Estadistica Peruana. QuarterlyGoogle Scholar
  2. Banco Central de Reserva. Monthly Bulletin.—Renta Nacional del Perú. Annual, LimaGoogle Scholar
  3. Cameron, M. A., Democracy and Authoritarianism in Peru: Political Coalitions and Social Change. London, 1995Google Scholar
  4. Daeschner, J., The War of the End of Democracy: Mario Vargas Llosa vs. Alberto Fujimori. Lima, 1993Google Scholar
  5. Gorriti, Gustavo, (trans. Robin Kirk) The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1999Google Scholar
  6. Stokes, S. C., Cultures in Conflict: Social Movements and the State in Peru. California Univ. Press, 1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Strong, S., Shining Path. London, 1993Google Scholar
  8. Vargas Llosa, A., The Madness of Things Peruvian: Democracy under Siege. Brunswick (NJ), 1994Google Scholar
  9. National statistical office: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Av. Gral. Garzón 654–658, Jesús María, Lima.Google Scholar
  10. Website (Spanish only):

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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