Mongol Uls
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Temujin became khan of Hamag Mongolia in 1190. Having united by conquest various Tatar and Mongolian tribes he was confirmed as ‘Universal’ (‘Genghis’, ‘Chingiz’) khan in 1206. The expansionist impulse of his nomadic empire (Beijing captured in 1215; Samarkand in 1220) continued after his death in 1227. Tamurlaine (died 1405) was the last of the conquering khans. In 1368 the Chinese drove the Mongols from Beijing, and for the next two centuries Sino-Mongolian relations alternated between war and trade. In 1691 Outer Mongolia accepted Manchu rule. The head of the Lamaist faith became the symbol of national identity, and his seat (‘Urga’, now Ulan Bator) was made the Mongolian capital. When the Manchu dynasty was overthrown in 1911 Outer Mongolia declared its independence under its spiritual ruler and turned to Russia for support against China. Soviet and Mongolian revolutionary forces set up a provisional government in March 1921. On the death of the spiritual ruler a people’s republic and new constitution were proclaimed in May 1924. With Soviet help Japanese invaders were fended off during the Second World War. The Mongols then took part in the successful Soviet campaign against Inner Mongolia and Manchuria. On 5 Jan. 1946 China recognized the independence of Outer Mongolia.


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Further Reading

  1. State Statistical Office: Mongolian Economy and Society in [year]: Statistical Yearbook.— National Economy of the MPR, 1924–1984: Anniversary Statistical Collection. Ulan Bator. 1984Google Scholar
  2. Akiner, S. (ed.) Mongolia Today. London, 1992Google Scholar
  3. Becker, J., The Lost Country. London, 1992Google Scholar
  4. Bruun, O. and Odgaard, O. (eds.) Mongolia in Transition. Richmond, 1996Google Scholar
  5. Griffin, K. (ed.) Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia. London, 1995Google Scholar
  6. Nordby, Judith, Mongolia in the Twentieth Century. Farnborough, 1993.—Mongolia. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1993Google Scholar
  7. National statistical office: Government Building 3, Ulan Bator-20A.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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