• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The Bulgarians take their name from an invading Asiatic horde (Bulgars) and their language from the Slav population, with whom they merged after 680. The Bulgarians carved out empires against a background of conflict with Byzantium and Serbia but after the Serb-Bulgarian defeat at Kosovo in 1389 Bulgaria finally succumbed to Ottoman encroachment. The Ottoman empire’s decline, however, engendered rebellion which met with brutal repression, provoking great power intervention. By the Treaty of Berlin (1878), Macedonia and Thrace reverted to Turkey, Eastern Rumelia became semi-autonomous and Bulgaria proper became a principality under Turkish suzerainty.


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Further Reading

  1. Central Statistical Office. Statisticheski Godishnik.—Statisticheski Spravochnik (annual).— Statistical Reference Book of Republic of Bulgaria (annual).Google Scholar
  2. Crampton, Richard J., A Concise History of Bulgaria. CUP, 1997Google Scholar
  3. Melone, A., Creating Parliamentary Government: The Transition to Democracy in Bulgaria. Ohio State Univ. Press, 1998Google Scholar
  4. National statistical office: Natsionalen Statisticheski Institut, Sofia. President: Alexander Hadjiiski.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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