A revolution, inspired by the USA, led to the separation of Panama from the United States of Colombia and the declaration of its independence on 3 Nov. 1903. This was followed by an agreement making it possible for the USA to build and operate a canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through the Isthmus of Panama. The treaty granted the USA in perpetuity the use, occupation and control of a Canal Zone, in which the USA would possess full sovereign rights. In return the USA guaranteed the independence of the republic. The Canal was opened on 15 Aug. 1914.
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- Statistical Information: The Controller-General of the Republic (Contraloria General de la República, Calle 35 y Avenida 6, Panama City) publishes an annual report and other statistical publications.Google Scholar
- McCullough, D. G., The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870–1914. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1999Google Scholar
- Sahota, G. S., Poverty Theory and Policy: a Study of Panama. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1990Google Scholar
- Other titles are listed under PANAMA CANAL, above. Google Scholar
- National library: Biblioteca Nacional, Departamento de Información, Calle 22, Panama. Website (Spanish only): http://www.contraloria.gob.paGoogle Scholar