• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The first human habitation in Canada dates from the last stages of the Pleistocene Ice Age up to 30,000 years ago. Mongoloid hunter-gatherers from Asia were the forefathers of Canada’s First Nations, numerous self-governing tribes consisting of 12 major language groups. In 1497 John Cabot was commissioned by King Henry VII of England to chart the coasts around Labrador and Newfoundland. The Frenchman, Jacques Cartier, discovered the Gulf of St Lawrence in 1534 and claimed it for the French crown. Fisheries were set up by the English and French, who traded iron and other goods with natives in exchange for valuable furs, mostly beaver. The French sent Samuel de Champlain in 1604 to establish a fur trade and organize a settlement in an area called Acadia (now New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island). The French traded with the Algonquin and Huron and supported them during fierce raids by the Iroquois, who became the fur trading allies of the Dutch and then the English.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Canadian Annual Review. From 1960Google Scholar
  2. Canadian Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. 4 vols. Edmonton, 1988Google Scholar
  3. Brown, R. C., An Illustrated History of Canada. Toronto, 1991Google Scholar
  4. Cook, C., Canada after the Referendum of 1992. McGill-Queens Univ. Press, 1994Google Scholar
  5. Dawson, R. M. and Dawson, W. F., Democratic Government in Canada. 5th ed. Toronto Univ. Press, 1989Google Scholar
  6. Ingles, E., Canada. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1990Google Scholar
  7. Jackson, R. J., Politics in Canada: Culture, Institutions, Behaviour and Public Policy. 2nd ed. Scarborough (Ont.), 1990Google Scholar
  8. Longille, P., Changing the Guard: Canada’s Defence in a World in Transition. Toronto Univ. Press, 1991Google Scholar
  9. Silver, A. I. (ed.) Introduction to Canadian History. London, 1994Google Scholar
  10. Other more specialized titles are listed under CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT above.Google Scholar
  11. National library: The National Library of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Librarian: Roch Carrier.Google Scholar
  12. National statistical office: Statistics Canada, Ottawa, K1A 0T6.Google Scholar
  13. Website:
  14. Savage, H., Kroetsch, R., Wiebe, R., Alberta. NeWest Press, 1993Google Scholar
  15. Economic Development Edmonton, Edmonton Info: Edmonton’s Official Fact Book 1999. Edmonton, 1999Google Scholar
  16. Statistical office: Alberta Finance, Statistics, Room 259, Terrace Bldg, 9515–107 St.. Edmonton, AB T5K 2C3.Google Scholar
  17. Websites:;
  18. Barman, J., The West beyond the West: a History of British Columbia. Toronto Univ. Press. 1991Google Scholar
  19. Statistical office: BC STATS, Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, P.O. Box 9410. Stn. Prov. Govt., Victoria V8W 9V1.Google Scholar
  20. General Information: Inquiries may be addressed to Manitoba Government Inquiry. e-mail: mgi@gov.mb.caGoogle Scholar
  21. Industrial Information: Dept. of Business New Brunswick, Fredericton. Economic Information: Dept. of Finance, New Brunswick Statistics Agency, Fredericton. General Information: Communications New Brunswick, Fredericton.Google Scholar
  22. Statistical office: Newfoundland Labrador Statistics Agency, POB 8700, St. John’s, NL A1B 4J6.Google Scholar
  23. Website:
  24. Nova Scotia Statistical Review. N. S. Department of Finance, Halifax, 2003Google Scholar
  25. Nova Scotia Facts at a Glance. N. S. Department of Finance, Halifax, 2003Google Scholar
  26. Statistical office: Statistics Division, Department of Finance, POB 187, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2N3.Google Scholar
  27. Website:
  28. Statistical Information: Annual publications of the Ontario Ministry of Finance include: Ontario Statistics; Ontario Budget; Public Accounts; Financial Report.Google Scholar
  29. Dickinson, J. A. and Young, B., A Short History of Quebec. 2nd ed. Harlow, 1994Google Scholar
  30. Gagnon, A.- G., Québec. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1998Google Scholar
  31. Young, R. A., The Secession of Quebec and the Future of Canada. McGill-Queen’s Univ. Press. 1995Google Scholar
  32. Statistical office: Bureau de la Statistique du Québec, 117 rue Saint-André, Québec G1K 3Y3Google Scholar
  33. Archer, J. H., Saskatchewan: A History. Saskatoon, 1980Google Scholar
  34. Arora, V., The Saskatchewan Bibliography. Regina, 1980Google Scholar
  35. Statistical office: Bureau of Statistics, 5th Floor, 2350 Albert St., Regina, SK, S4P 4A6.Google Scholar
  36. Annual Report of the Government of the Northwest Territories Google Scholar
  37. Government Activities in the North, 1983–84. Indian and Northern Affairs, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  38. NWT Data Book 90/91. Yellowknife, 1991Google Scholar
  39. Zaslow, M., The Opening of the Canadian North 1870–1914. Toronto, 1971Google Scholar
  40. The Nunavut Handbook, Raincoast Books, Vancouver, 1999Google Scholar
  41. Annual Report of the Government of the Yukon.Google Scholar
  42. Yukon Executive Council, Annual Statistical Review.Google Scholar
  43. Berton, P., Klondike. (Rev. ed.) Toronto, 1987Google Scholar
  44. Coates, K. and Morrison, W., Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon. Edmonton. 1988Google Scholar
  45. There is a Yukon Archive at Yukon College, Whitehorse.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations