• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Archaeological evidence points to the influence of Arabic and Turkish cultures prior to the 4th century AD. Avar, Goth, Hun and Magyar occupations punctuated the development of the East Slavs over the next five centuries, while trade with Germanic, Scandinavian and Middle Eastern regions began in the 8th century.


Prime Minister Autonomous Region Agricultural Output Industrial Output High Educational Establishment 
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Rossiiskaya Federatsiya


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Further Reading

  1. Rossiiskii Statisticheskii Ezhegodnik. Moscow, annual (title varies)Google Scholar
  2. Acton, E., et al., Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution. Indiana Univ. Press, 1997Google Scholar
  3. Aron, Leon, Boris Yeltsin: A Revolutionary Life. HarperCollins, London, 2000Google Scholar
  4. Aslund, Anders, (ed.) Economic Transformation in Russia. New York, 1994.—Building Capitalism: the Transformation of the Former Soviet Bloc. CUP, 2002Google Scholar
  5. Brady, Rose, Kapitalizm: Russia’s Struggle to Free its Economy. Yale Univ. Press, 2000Google Scholar
  6. Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Former Soviet Union. CUP, 1995Google Scholar
  7. Dunlop, J., Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of a Separatist Conflict, Vol. 1. CUP, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fowkes, B. (ed.) Russia and Chechnia: The Permanent Crisis, Essays on Russo-Chechen Relations. St Martin’s Press, New York, 1998Google Scholar
  9. Freeze, G. (ed.) Russia: A History. OUP, 1997Google Scholar
  10. Gall, C. and de Waal, T., Chechnya: Calamity in the Caucasus. New York, 1998Google Scholar
  11. Gorbachev, Mikhail, On My Country and the World; translated from Russian. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 2000Google Scholar
  12. Granville, Brigitte and Oppenheimer, Peter, (eds.) Russia’s Post-Community Economy. OUP. 2001Google Scholar
  13. Gustafson, Thane, Capitalism Russian-Style. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000Google Scholar
  14. Hollander, Paul, Political Will and Personal Belief: The Decline and Fall of Soviet Communism. Yale Univ. Press, 2000Google Scholar
  15. Hosking, Geoffrey, Russia and the Russians, A History from Rus to the Russian Federation. Allen Lane/The Penguin Press, London, 2001Google Scholar
  16. Kochan, L., The Making of Modern Russia. 2nd ed., revised by R. Abraham. London, 1994Google Scholar
  17. Kotkin, Stephen, Armageddon Averted: the Soviet Collapse 1970–2000. OUP, 2001Google Scholar
  18. Lieven, A., Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. Yale Univ. Press, 1998Google Scholar
  19. Lloyd, J., Rebirth of a Nation. London, 1998Google Scholar
  20. Marks, Steven, How Russia Shaped the Modern World: From Art to Anti-Semitism, Ballet to Bolshevism. Princeton Univ. Press, 2002Google Scholar
  21. Paxton, J., Encyclopedia of Russian History. Denver (CO), 1993Google Scholar
  22. Pitman, L., Russia/USSR. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA). 1994Google Scholar
  23. Putin, Vladimir, First Person; interviews, translated from Russian. Hutchinson, London, 2000Google Scholar
  24. Remnick, D., Resurrection: The Struggle for a New Russia. Picador, London, 1998Google Scholar
  25. Riasanovsky, N. V., A History of Russia. 5th ed. OUP, 1993Google Scholar
  26. Sakwa, R., Russian Politics and Society. 2nd ed. London, 1996Google Scholar
  27. Service, Robert, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia. Harvard Univ. Press, 1997.—Lenin: A Biography. Macmillan, London, 2000.—Russia: Experiment with a People. Pan Macmillan, London, 2002Google Scholar
  28. Shriver, G. (ed. and transi.) Post-Soviet Russia, A Journey Through the Yeltsin Era. Columbia Univ. Press, 2000Google Scholar
  29. Westwood, J. N., Endurance and Endeavour: Russian History, 1812–1992. 4th ed. OUP, 1993Google Scholar
  30. White, Stephen, et al., How Russia Votes. Chatham House (NJ), 1997Google Scholar
  31. White, Stephen, Pravda, Alex and Gitelman, Zvi, (eds.) Developments in Russian Politics. Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2001Google Scholar
  32. Woodruff, David, Money Unmade: Barter and the Fate of Russian Capitalism. Cornell Univ. Press, 2000Google Scholar
  33. Yeltsin, B., The View from the Kremlin (in USA The Struggle for Russia). London and New York, 1994Google Scholar
  34. National statistical office: Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Statistike (Goskomstat), Moscow.Google Scholar
  35. Lieven, A. and Bradner, H., Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. Yale Univ. Press, 1999Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003

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  • Barry Turner

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