• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Colonization of the Nicaraguan Pacific coast was undertaken by Spaniards from Panama, beginning in 1523. France and Britain, however, and later the USA, all tried to play a colonial or semi-colonial role in Nicaragua. Nicaragua became an independent republic in 1838 but its independence was often threatened by US intervention. Between 1910 and 1930 the country was under almost continuous US military occupation.


Parliamentary Election Military Occupation Total Government Expenditure Secondary School Pupil International Flight 
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República de Nicaragua


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Further Reading

  1. Dijkstra, G., Industrialization in Sandinista Nicaragua: Policy and Party in a Mixed Economy Boulder (CO), 1992Google Scholar
  2. Jones, Adam, Beyond the Barricades: Nicaragua and the Struggle for the Sandanista Press, 1979–1998. Ohio Univ. Press, Athens (OH), 2002Google Scholar
  3. Woodward, R. L., Nicaragua. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1994Google Scholar
  4. National statistical office: Dirección General de Estadística y Censos, ManaguaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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