Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiya (Arab Republic of Egypt)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


There is evidence of Neolithic habitation along the Nile and there was agricultural activity by 6000 BC. Around 3100 BC Menés united Upper and Lower Egypt and so began the rule of 31 successive pharaonic dynasties. This period may be divided into three broad phases. The Old Kingdom, which lasted from c. 2575–2150 BC, was governed centrally from Memphis and saw the construction of the Giza pyramids. The Middle Kingdom (c. 2050–1650 BC) saw Egypt reach its zenith culturally and intellectually. The era finished with the incursions of the Hyksos, a nomadic Asiatic tribe. The New Kingdom came into being with the expulsion of the Hyksos around 1550 BC and lasted until 1050 BC. It saw Egypt achieve its greatest territorial dominance, with Syria, Palestine and northern Iraq all under Egyptian jurisdiction.


Foreign Bank Suez Canal Cotton Yarn Toll Revenue Middle Kingdom 
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Further Reading

  1. CAPMAS, Statistical Year Book, Arab Republic of Egypt Google Scholar
  2. Abdel-Khalek, G., Stabilization and Adjustment in Egypt. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daly, M. W. (ed.) The Cambridge History of Egypt. 2 vols. CUP, 2000Google Scholar
  4. Hopwood, D., Egypt: Politics and Society 1945–1990. 3rd ed. London, 1992Google Scholar
  5. Ibrahim, Fouad N. and Ibrahim, Barbara, Egypt: An Economic Geography. I. B. Tauris, London, 2001Google Scholar
  6. King, J. W., Historical Dictionary of Egypt. 2nd ed. Revised by A. Goldschmidt. Metuchen (NJ), 1995Google Scholar
  7. Malek, J. (ed.) Egypt. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1993Google Scholar
  8. Raymond, André, Cairo. Harvard Univ. Press, 2001Google Scholar
  9. Rodenbeck, M., Cairo—the City Victorious. Picador, London, 1998Google Scholar
  10. Rubin, Barry, Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2002Google Scholar
  11. Vatikiotis, P. J., History of Modern Egypt: from Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. London, 1991Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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