By the end of the 15th century, the Vietnamese had conquered most of the Kingdom of Champa (now Vietnam’s central area) and by the end of the 18th century had acquired Cochin-China (now its southern area). At the end of the 18th century, France helped to establish the Emperor Gia-Long as ruler of a unified Vietnam. Cambodia had become a French protectorate in 1863 and in 1899, after the extension of French protection to Laos in 1893, the Indo Chinese Union was proclaimed.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Trade and Tourism Information Centre with the General Statistical Office. Economy and Trade of Vietnam [various 5-year periods]Google Scholar
- Karnow, S., Vietnam: a History. 2nd ed. London, 1992Google Scholar
- Marr, David G. et al, Vietnam. [Bibliography] ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1992Google Scholar
- Morley, J. W. and Nishihara M., Vietnam Joins the World. Armonk (NY), 1997Google Scholar
- Norlund, I. (ed.) Vietnam in a Changing World. London, 1994Google Scholar
- National statistical office: General Statistical Office, Hanoi.Google Scholar