Descended from nomadic Mongol tribes who settled in Central Asia in the 13th century, the Uzbeks came under Russian control in the late 19th century. In Oct. 1917 the Tashkent Soviet assumed authority. The semi-independent Khanates of Khiva and Bokhara were first (1920) transformed into People’s Republics, then (1923–24) into Soviet Socialist Republics, and finally merged in the Uzbek SSR and other republics. On 20 June 1990 the Supreme Soviet adopted a declaration of sovereignty and in Aug. 1991 following an unsuccessful coup, declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan. In Dec. 1991 Uzbekistan became a member of the CIS.
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- Kangas, R. D., Uzbekistan in the Twentieth Century: Political Development and the Evolution of Power. New York, 1994Google Scholar