(Kingdom of Sweden)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Sweden was organized as an independent unified state in the 10th century when the Swedes in the north of the country and the Goths in the south were united by Olof. Finland was acquired in the 13th century. In the 14th century Sweden was joined with Norway and Denmark in the Kalmar Union; however, under Gustavus Vasa Sweden regained her independence in 1523. Under Gustavus Adolphus (1611–32) Sweden became a first rank military power and, at the close of the Thirty Years War in 1648, was in possession of Pomerania and of extensive territories on the eastern shores of the Baltic. But war with Russia and her allies in the early 18th century ended disastrously for Sweden. By the treaty of Nystad (1721) Sweden lost her Baltic empire. In 1810 the French marshal, Bernadotte, was made crown prince. With the fall of Napoleon, Norway was taken from Denmark and attached to Sweden. Bernadotte became King in 1818. Sweden became a constitutional monarchy in 1809, in which year she also ceded Finland to Russia. Norway became independent in 1905. Sweden remained neutral during the two world wars of 1914–18 and 1939–45.

Konungariket Sverige


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Further Reading

  1. Statistics Sweden. Statistik Årsbok/Statistical Yearbook of Sweden.—Historisk Statistik for Sverige (Historical Statistics of Sweden). 1955 ff.—Allmän månadsstatistik (Monthly Digest of Swedish Statistics).—Statistiska meddelanden (Statistical Reports). From 1963Google Scholar
  2. Henrekson, M., An Economic Analysis of Swedish Government Expenditure. Aldershot, 1992Google Scholar
  3. Petersson, O., Swedish Government and Politics. Stockholm, 1994Google Scholar
  4. Sveriges statskalender. Published by Vetenskapsakademien. Annual, from 1813Google Scholar
  5. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Scandinavia Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar
  6. National library: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  7. National statistical office: Statistics Sweden, S-115 81 Stockholm.Google Scholar
  8. Swedish Institute Website:

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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