Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United States of Mexico)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Mexico’s history falls into four epochs: the era of the Indian empires (before 1521), the Spanish colonial phase (1521–1810), the period of national formation (1810–1910), which includes the war of independence (1810–21) and the long dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz (1876–80, 1884–1911), and the present period which began with the social revolution of 1910–21. Mexico was conquered for Spain by Cortés in 1521 and became part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. A substantial part of Mexico’s territory (including the present state of California) was lost to the USA by the Mexican War of 1846–48. In the 1860s France, Britain and the USA declared war on Mexico; France invaded the country and declared Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, to be Emperor. When the French withdrew in 1867 Maximilian was executed. The constitution of 1917 established a representative, democratic and federal republic, comprising 31 states and a federal district. The PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) remained in power for 71 years until it was defeated by the conservative National Action party in the elections of July 2000.


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Further Reading

  1. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática. Anuario Estadístico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Mexican Bulletin of Statistical Information. Quarterly.Google Scholar
  2. Aspe, P., Economic Transformation: the Mexican Way. Cambridge (MA), 1993Google Scholar
  3. Bartra, R., Agrarian Structure and Political Power in Mexico. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1993Google Scholar
  4. Bethell, L., (ed.) Mexico since Independence. CUP, 1992Google Scholar
  5. Camp, R. A., Politics in Mexico. 2nd ed. OUP, 1996Google Scholar
  6. Hamnett, Brian R., A Concise History of Mexico. CUP, 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krauze, E., Mexico, Biography of Power: A History of Modern Mexico, 1810–1996. London, 1997Google Scholar
  8. Philip, G., (ed.) The Presidency in Mexican Politics. London, 1991.—Mexico. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1993Google Scholar
  9. Rodríguez, J. E., The Evolution of the Mexican Political System. New York, 1993Google Scholar
  10. Ruiz, R. E., Triumphs and Tragedy: a History of the Mexican People. New York, 1992Google Scholar
  11. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Latin America Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar
  12. Whiting, V. R., The Political Economy of Foreign Investment in Mexico: Nationalism, Liberalism, Constraints on Choice. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992Google Scholar
  13. National statistical office: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (INEGI), Aguascalientes.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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