Vanuatu occupies the group of islands formerly known as the New Hebrides, in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Captain Bligh and his companions, cast adrift by the Bounty mutineers, sailed through part of the island group in 1789. Sandalwood merchants and European missionaries came to the islands in the mid 19th century and were then followed by cotton planters—mostly French and British—in 1868. In response to Australian calls to annexe the islands, Britain and France agreed on joint supervision. Joint sovereignty was held over the indigenous Melanesia people but each nation retained responsibility for its own nationals according to a protocol of 1914. The island group escaped Japanese invasion during the Second World War and became an Allied base. On 30 July 1980 New Hebrides became an independent nation under the name of Vanuatu, meaning ‘Our Land Forever’.
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