Malta was held in turn by Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Romans, and was conquered by Arabs in 870. From 1090 to 1530 it was subject to the same rulers as Sicily. Subsequently, the Knights of St John ruled until dispersed by Napoleon in 1798. The Maltese rose in rebellion against the French and the island was blockaded by the British aided by the Maltese from 1798 to 1800. The Maltese people requested the protection of the British Crown in 1802 on condition that their rights and privileges be preserved. The islands were finally annexed to the British Crown by the Treaty of Paris in 1814. Malta became independent on 21 Sept. 1964 and a republic within the Commonwealth on 13 Dec. 1974.
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