Turkestan (by which name part of this territory was then known) was conquered by the Russians in the 1860s. In 1866 Tashkent (now Toshkent) was occupied and in 1868 Samarkand (now Samarqand), and subsequently further territory was conquered and united with Russian Turkestan. In the 1870s Bokhara was subjugated, with the emir—by an agreement of 1873—recognizing the suzerainty of Russia. In the same year Khiva became a vassal state to Russia. Until 1917 Russian Central Asia was divided politically into the Khanate of Khiva, the Emirate of Bokhara and the Governor-Generalship of Turkestan. In the summer of 1919 the authority of the Soviet Government was established in these regions. The Khan of Khiva was deposed in Feb. 1920, and a People’s Soviet Republic was set up, the medieval name of Khorezm being revived. In Aug. 1920 the Emir of Bokhara suffered the same fate and a similar regime was set up in Bokhara. The former Governor-Generalship of Turkestan was constituted an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR on 11 April 1921.
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- Olcott, M. B., The Kazakhs. Stanford, 1987Google Scholar