Sakartvelos Respublika (Republic of Georgia)
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The independent Georgian Social Democratic Republic was declared on 26 May 1918 and was recognized by the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic on 7 May 1920. In 1936 the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic became one of the constituent republics of the USSR. Following nationalist successes at elections in Oct. 1990, the Supreme Soviet resolved on a transition to full independence and on 9 April 1991 unanimously declared the republic an independent state. President Zviad Gamsakhurdia was deposed by armed insurrection on 6 Jan. 1992 and a military council took control. After elections in which he gained 95% of votes cast, Eduard Shevardnadze became de facto head of state in Oct. 1992. On 22 Oct. 1993 Georgia joined the CIS. Supporters of the deposed president Gamsakhurdia were in intermittent conflict with the government, mainly in Mingrelia, but suffered heavy defeats once Russian support became available via the CIS. Subsequently, Georgia moved closer to the West but economic reforms have been slow in coming and industry and agriculture are both in desperate need of investment.


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Further Reading

  1. Brook, S., Claws of the Crab: Georgia and Armenia in Crisis. London, 1992Google Scholar
  2. Gachechiladze, R., The New Georgia: Space, Society, Politics. London, 1995Google Scholar
  3. Lang, D. M., A Modern History of Georgia. London, 1962.—The Georgians. London. 1966Google Scholar
  4. Nasmyth, P., Georgia: a Rebel in the Caucasus. London, 1992Google Scholar
  5. Suny, R. G., The Making of the Georgian Nation. 2nd ed. Indiana Univ. Press, 1994Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

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