Suomen Tasavalta— Republiken Finland
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Finland was part of Sweden until the 18th century when the southeast territory was conquered by Russia. The rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the treaty of Hamina in 1809 when Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy retaining its laws and institutions under a grand duke, the Emperor of Russia. The Diet, elected since 1906 on universal suffrage, produced in 1916 a social democrat majority, the first in Europe. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent but civil war broke out in Jan. 1918 between the ‘whites’ and ‘reds’, the latter supported by Russian Bolshevik forces. The defeat of the red guards led to a peace treaty with Soviet Russia, signed in 1920. On 30 Nov. 1939 a Soviet invasion compelled Finland to cede 32,806 sq. km including the Carelian Isthmus, Viipuri and the shores of Lake Ladoga. When the German attack on the USSR was launched in June 1941 Finland was again involved in war against the USSR. On 19 Sept. 1944 an armistice was signed in Moscow. Finland agreed to cede more territory and to pay reparations. To pacify the USSR, the post-war premier and later president Juho Passikivi pursued a policy of neutralism favourable to the Russians. This policy, known as Finlandization, was continued under Presidents Urho Kekkonen (1956–81) and Mauno Koivisto (1981–94). With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Finland was able to adopt an independent foreign policy which led to EU admission in 1995.


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Further Reading

  1. Statistics Finland. Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879).—Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924).Google Scholar
  2. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  3. Suomen valtiokalenteri—Finlands statskalender (State Calendar of Finland). Helsinki. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  4. Facts About Finland. Helsinki. Annual (Union Bank of Finland)Google Scholar
  5. Finland in Figures. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  6. Arter, D., Politics and Policy-Making in Finland. Brighton, 1987Google Scholar
  7. Jakobson, M., Myth and Reality. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  8. Jutikkala, E. and Pirinen, K., A History of Finland. 3rd ed. New York, 1979Google Scholar
  9. Kekkonen, U., President’s View. London, 1982Google Scholar
  10. Kirby, D. G., Finland in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. London, 1984Google Scholar
  11. Klinge, M., A Brief History of Finland. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  12. Mead, W. R., Experience of Finland. Farnborough, 1993Google Scholar
  13. Petersson, O., The Government and Politics of the Nordic Countries. Stockholm, 1994Google Scholar
  14. Screen, J. E. O., Finland. [Bibliography] 2nd ed. ABC-Clio, Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1997Google Scholar
  15. Singleton, F., The Economy of Finland in the Twentieth Century. Univ. of Bradford Press, 1987.—A Short History of Finland, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 1998Google Scholar
  16. Tillotson, H. M., Finland at Peace and War. 1918–1993. London, 1993Google Scholar
  17. Turner, Barry, (ed.) Scandinavia Profiled. Macmillan, London, 2000Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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