• Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Bahrain was controlled by the Portuguese from 1521 until 1602. The Khalifa family gained control in 1783 and has ruled since that date, rejecting claims of suzerainty from Persia (Iran) and the Ottoman Empire. British assistance was sought to retain independence and in 1861 Bahrain and Britain signed a treaty of peace and friendship. From 1861 until 1971 Bahrain was in all but name a British protectorate. Treaties signed in 1882 and in 1892 gave Britain responsibility for defence and foreign policy. In 1970 a Council of State was established, so that the ruling family was no longer the sole executive power.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bahrain Monetary Authority. Quarterly Statistical Bulletin.Google Scholar
  2. Central Statistics Organization. Statistical Abstract. Annual.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Khalifa, A. and Rice, M. (eds.) Bahrain through the Ages. London, 1993Google Scholar
  4. Al-Khalifa, H. bin I., First Light: Modern Bahrain and its Heritage. London, 1995Google Scholar
  5. Lawson, F. H., Bahrain: The Modernization of Autocracy. Boulder, 1989Google Scholar
  6. Rumaihi, M. G., Bahrain: Social and Political Change since the First World War. New York and London, 1976Google Scholar
  7. Unwin, P. T. H., Bahrain. [Bibliography]. London and Santa Barbara (CA), 1984Google Scholar
  8. National statistical office: Central Statistics Organization, Council of Ministers, Manama.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations