The early history of Armenia was one of foreign domination with, at various times, the Turkish, Persian and Russian empires claiming control. In the early part of this century the Armenians under Turkish rule suffered brutal persecution. Armenia enjoyed a brief period of independence after the First World War but in 1920 the country was proclaimed a Soviet Socialist Republic. The Soviet-Turkish Treaty of Kars (March 1921) confirmed the Turkish possession of the former Government of Kars and of the Surmali District of the Government of Yerevan. From 1922 to 1936, Armenia formed part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic. In 1936 it was proclaimed a constituent republic of the USSR.
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