Ahmad Shah Durrani consolidated Afghanistan as a kingdom, ruling with an advisory council of tribal chiefs from 1747 until his death in 1773. His frontiers extended into modern Kir and Pakistan, although by 1770 he had suffered reversals at the hands of the Sikhs in the Punjab. After 1773 the unity of Afghanistan was threatened by internal quarrels. In 1816–24 there was civil war, ending in victory for the Barakzay clan, whose leader Dost Mohammed became Amir in 1826. His capital was Kabul.
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