Mongol Uls
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Temujin became khan of Hamag Mongolia in 1190. Having united by conquest various Tatar and Mongolian tribes he was confirmed as ‘Universal’ (‘Genghis’, ‘Chingiz’) khan in 1206. The expansionist impulse of his nomadic empire (Beijing captured in 1215; Samarkand in 1220) continued after his death in 1227, although the empire was by then administratively divided among his sons. Tamurlaine (died 1405) was the last of the conquering khans. In 1368 the Chinese drove the Mongols from Beijing, and for the next 2 centuries Sino-Mongolian relations alternated between war and trade. Lamaism spread from Tibet in the 16th century. The last Mongol khan, Ligden (1604-34), failed to stem the tide of Manchu expansion; southern (Inner) Mongolia was conquered in 1636 and Beijing in 1644. In 1691 Outer Mongolia accepted Manchu rule. The head of the Lamaist faith became the symbol of national identity, and his seat (‘Urga#x2019;, now Ulan Bator) was made the Mongolian capital.


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Further Reading

  1. State Statistical Office: Mongolian Economy and Society in [year]: Statistical Yearbook.—National Economy of the MPR, 1924–1984: Anniversary Statistical Collection. Ulan Bator, 1984Google Scholar
  2. Akiner, S. (ed.) Mongolia Today. London, 1992Google Scholar
  3. Bawden, C. R., The Modern History of Mongolia. London, 1968Google Scholar
  4. Becker, J., The Lost Country. London, 1992Google Scholar
  5. Bruun, O. and Odgaard, O. (eds.) Mongolia in Transition. Richmond, 1996Google Scholar
  6. Griffin, K. (ed.) Poverty and the Transition to a Market Economy in Mongolia. London, 1995Google Scholar
  7. Jagchid, S. and Hyer, P., Mongolia ’s Culture and Society. Folkestone, 1979Google Scholar
  8. Lattimore, O., Nationalism and Revolution in Mongolia. Leiden, 1955.Google Scholar
  9. Nomads and Commissars. OUP, 1963Google Scholar
  10. Nordby, J., Mongolia in the Twentieth Century. Farnborough, 1993Google Scholar
  11. Sanders, A. J. K., Mongolia: Politics, Economics and Society. London, 1987Google Scholar
  12. Shirendev, B. and Sanjdorj, M. (eds.) History of the Mongolian People’s Republic. Vol. 3 (vols. 1 and 2 not translated). Harvard Univ. Press, 1976Google Scholar
  13. National Statistical Office: State Statistical Office, Ulan BatorGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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