Suomen Tasavalta— Republiken Finland
  • Barry Turner
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Finland was part of Sweden until the 18th century when the south-east territory was conquered by Russia. The rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the treaty of Hamina in 1809 when Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy retaining its laws and institutions under a grand duke, the Emperor of Russia. The Diet, elected since 1906 on universal suffrage, produced in 1916 a social democrat majority, the first in Europe. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent but civil war broke out in Jan. 1918 between the ‘whites’ and ‘reds’, the latter supported by Russian Bolshevik troops. The defeat of the red guards in May 1918 freed the country from Russian troops. A peace treaty with Soviet Russia was signed in 1920.


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Further Reading

  1. Statistics Finland. Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879).—Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924).Google Scholar
  2. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  3. Suomen valtiokalenteriFinlands statskalender (State Calendar of Finland). Helsinki. Annual Facts About Finland. Helsinki. Annual (Union Bank of Finland) Finland in Figures. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  4. Arter, D., Politics and Policy-Making in Finland. Brighton, 1987Google Scholar
  5. Jakobson, M., Myth and Reality. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  6. Jutikkala, E. and Pirinen, K., A History of Finland. 3rd ed. New York, 1979Google Scholar
  7. Kekkonen, U., President’s View. London, 1982Google Scholar
  8. Kirby, D. C., Finland in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. London, 1984Google Scholar
  9. Klinge, M., A Brief History of Finland. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  10. Mead, W. R., Experience of Finland. Farnborough, 1993Google Scholar
  11. Petersson, O., The Government and Politics of the Nordic Countries. Stockholm, 1994Google Scholar
  12. Screen, J. E. O., Finland. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara (CA), 1998Google Scholar
  13. Singleton, F., The Economy of Finland in the Twentieth Century. Univ. of Bradford Press, 1987Google Scholar
  14. Singleton, F., A Short History of Finland, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Tillotson, H. M., Finland at Peace and War, 1918–1993. London, 1993Google Scholar
  16. National statistical office: Statistics Finland, Tilastokeskus, FIN-00022.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry Turner

There are no affiliations available

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