The Incas of Peru conquered this territory in the 15th century but in 1532 the Spaniards, under Francisco Pizarro, founded a colony in Ecuador, then called Quito. This colony was in turn part of the viceroyalty of Peru and then of New Granada. Spanish rule was first challenged by the rising of Aug. 1809. In 1821 a revolt under Marshal Sucre led to the defeat of the Spaniards at Pichincha in 1821, and thus the winning of independence from Spain. In 1822 Bolivar persuaded the new republic to join the federation of Gran Colombia. However, in 1830 Ecuador left this federation and on 13 March 1830 became the Republic of Ecuador instead of the Presidency of Quito. For 100 years thereafter, considerable difficulty was found in creating a stable regime as presidents and dictators followed one another. Since 1948 first President Galo Plazo Lasso (1948–52) and then President Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra (1934–35, 1944–47, 1952–56, 1960–61, 1968–72) gave more continuity to the presidential regimes, although the last named was deposed by military coups from four of his five presidencies.
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