Key Historical Events. Guinea Bissau, formerly Portuguese Guinea, was discovered in 1446 by Nuno Tristão. It became a separate colony in 1879. It is bounded by the limits fixed by the convention of 12 May 1886 with France. In 1951 Guinea-Bissau became an overseas province of Portugal. The struggle against colonial rule began in 1963. Independence was declared on 24 Sept. 1973. On 14 Nov. 1980 the then president Luiz Cabrai was deposed and replaced by the prime minister, João Bernardo Vieira.
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