HISTORY. Although Spain has traditionally been a monarchy there have been two Republics, the first in 1873, which lasted for 11 months, and the second 1931–39; both were democratically and peacefully proclaimed. Part of the army rebelled against the republican government on 18 July 1936, thus beginning the Spanish Civil War, see The Statesman’s Year-Book, 1939, pp. 1325–26. The new regime was led by Gen. Francisco Franco y Bahamonde as Head of State and Government, and its institutions were based on single party rule, with the Falange as the only legal political organization.
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