• John Paxton
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Since the Middle Ages Finland was a part of the realm of Sweden. In the 18th century parts of south-eastern Finland were conquered by Russia, and the rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the peace treaty of Hamina in 1809. Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy which retained its previous laws and institutions under its Grand Duke, the Emperor of Russia. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent on 6 Dec. 1917. The Civil War began in Jan. 1918 between the ‘whites’ and ‘reds’, the latter being supported by Russian bolshevik troops. The defeat of the red guards in May 1918 consequently meant freeing the country from Russian troops. A peace treaty with Soviet Russia was signed in 1920.

Suomen Tasavalta—Republiken Finland


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Further Reading

  1. Statistical Information: The Central Statistical Office (Tilastokeskus, Swedish: Statistikcentralen; address: PO Box 504, SF-00101 Helsinki 10) was founded in 1865 to replace earlier official statistical services dating from 1749 (in united Sweden-Finland). Statistics on foreign trade, agriculture, forestry, navigation, health and social welfare are produced by other state authorities. Its publications include: Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879) and Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924). A bibliography of all official statistics of Finland was published in Finnish, Swedish and English in Statistical publications 1856–1979. Helsinki, 1980.Google Scholar
  2. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  3. Suomen valtiokalenteri-Finlands statskalender (State Calendar of Finland). Helsinki. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  4. Facts About Finland. Helsinki. Annual (Union Bank of Finland)Google Scholar
  5. Facts about Finland. Helsinki, 1988Google Scholar
  6. Finland in Figures. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  7. Finland in Maps. Helsinki, 1979Google Scholar
  8. Finnish Press Laws. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  9. Making and Applying Law in Finland. Ministry of Justice, 1983Google Scholar
  10. Statistical Yearbook of Finland. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  11. Yearbook of Finnish Foreign Policy. Helsinki, AnnualGoogle Scholar
  12. The Finnish Banking System. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  13. Finnish Industry. Helsinki, 1988Google Scholar
  14. Finnish Local Government. Helsinki, 1983Google Scholar
  15. Health Care in Finland. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  16. Arter, D., Politics and Policy-Making in Finland. Brighton, 1987Google Scholar
  17. Hurme-Malin-Syväoja, Finnish-English General Dictionary. Helsinki, 1984Google Scholar
  18. Hurme-Pesonen, English-Finnish General Dictionary. Helsinki, 1982Google Scholar
  19. Jakobson, M. Myth and Reality. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  20. Jutikkala, E. and Pinnen, K., A History of Finland. 3rd ed. New York, 1979Google Scholar
  21. Kekkonen, U., President’s View. London, 1982Google Scholar
  22. Kirby, D.G., Finland in the Twentieth Century. 2nd ed. London, 1984Google Scholar
  23. Klinge, M., A Brief History of Finland. Helsinki, 1987Google Scholar
  24. Paasivirta, J., Finland and Europe. The Period of Autonomy and the International Crises 1808–1914. London, 1981Google Scholar
  25. Polvinen, T., Between East and West — Finland in International Politics 1944–1947. Minnesota Univ. Press, 1986Google Scholar
  26. Puntila, L. A., The Political History of Finland. 1809–1966. Helsinki, 1974Google Scholar
  27. Screen, J. E. O., Finland. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara, 1981Google Scholar
  28. Singleton, F., The Economy of Finland in the ‘Twentieth Century. Univ. of Bradford Press, 1987Google Scholar
  29. University of Turku, Political Parties in Finland. Turku, 1987Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Paxton

There are no affiliations available

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