• John Paxton
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


The territories which now constitute Canada came under British power at various times by settlement, conquest or cession. Nova Scotia was occupied in 1628 by settlement at Port Royal, was ceded back to France in 1632 and was finally ceded by France in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht; the Hudson’s Bay Company’s charter, conferring rights over all the territory draining into Hudson Bay, was granted in 1670; Canada, with all its dependencies, including New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, was formally ceded to Great Britain by France in 1763; Vancouver Island was acknowledged to be British by the Oregon Boundary Treaty of 1846, and British Columbia was established as a separate colony in 1858. As originally constituted, Canada was composed of Upper and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. They were united under an Act of the Imperial Parliament, ‘The British North America Act, 1867’, which came into operation on 1 July 1867 by royal proclamation. The Act provided that the constitution of Canada should be ‘similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom’; that the executive authority shall be vested in the Sovereign, and carried on in his name by a Governor-General and Privy Council; and that the legislative power shall be exercised by a Parliament of two Houses, called the ‘Senate’ and the ‘House of Commons’.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. The Canada Year Book. Biennial, from 1905Google Scholar
  2. Canada, Official Handbook. Annual, from 1930. Biennial, from 1980Google Scholar
  3. Canadian Economic Observer. Monthly, with annual historical supplements, from 1988Google Scholar
  4. Twelfth Decennial Census of Canada, 1981. Ottawa, 1982Google Scholar
  5. Atlas and Gazetteer of Canada. Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources. Ottawa, 1969Google Scholar
  6. Cambridge History of the British Empire. Vol. VI. Canada and Newfoundland. Cambridge, 1930Google Scholar
  7. Canadian Almanac and Directory. Toronto. AnnualGoogle Scholar
  8. Canadian Annual Review. Annual, from 1960Google Scholar
  9. Canadian Dictionary: French-English. Toronto, 1970Google Scholar
  10. Canadian Encyclopedia. 3 vols. Edmonton, 1985Google Scholar
  11. Canadiana: A List of Publications of Canadian Interest. National Library, Ottawa. Monthly, with annual cumulation. 1951 ff.Google Scholar
  12. Cook, R., French-Canadian Nationalism; An Anthology. Toronto, 1970.—The Maple Leal Forever; Essays on Nationalism and Politics in Canada. Toronto, 1971Google Scholar
  13. Creighton, D. G., Canada’s First Century. Toronto, 1970.—Towards the Discovery of Canada. Toronto, 1974Google Scholar
  14. Dewitt, D. B. and Kirton, J. J., Canada as a Principal Power: A Study in Foreign Policy. Toronto, 1983Google Scholar
  15. Dictionnaire Bélisle de la langue française au Canada; dictionnaire oxford, 1970Google Scholar
  16. Dictionnaire canadien; français-anglais-français. Toronto, 1962Google Scholar
  17. Encyclopedia Canadiana. 10 vols. Rev. ed. Ottawa, 1967Google Scholar
  18. Granatstein, J. L., Twentieth Century Canada. Toronto, 1983Google Scholar
  19. Hardy, W.G., From Sea to Sea; Canada, 1850–1920: The Road to Nationhood. Toronto, 1960Google Scholar
  20. Harris, R. C., (ed.) Historical Atlas of Canada. Vol 1. Univ. of Toronto, 1987Google Scholar
  21. Hockin, T. A., Government in Canada. London, 1976Google Scholar
  22. Ingles, E., Canada. [Bibliography] Oxford and Santa Barbara, 1989Google Scholar
  23. Kerr, D. G. G., Historical Alias of Canada. Toronto, 1960Google Scholar
  24. Leacy, F. H., (ed.) Historical Statistics of Canada. Government Printer, Ottawa, 1983Google Scholar
  25. Lower, A. R. M., Colony to Nation: A History of Canada. 4th ed. Toronto, 1964Google Scholar
  26. McCann, L. D., (ed.) Heartland and Hinlerland: A Geography of Canada. Scarborough, Ontario, 1982Google Scholar
  27. Mallory, J. R., The Structure of Canadian Government. Toronto, 1971Google Scholar
  28. Moir, J. and Saunders, R., Northern Destiny: A History of Canada. Toronto, 1970Google Scholar
  29. Newman, P. C., Company of Adventurers: The Story of the Hudson’s Bay Company. Vol. 1, London, 1986Google Scholar
  30. Nurgitz, N. and Segal, H., No Small Measure: The Progressive Conservatives and the Constitution. Ottawa, 1983Google Scholar
  31. Smith, D. L., (ed.) History of Canada; An Annotated Bibliography. Oxford and Santa Barbara, 1983Google Scholar
  32. Blackburn, R. H. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Canada: Newfoundland Supplement. Toronto, 1949Google Scholar
  33. Horwood, H., Newfoundland. Toronto, 1969Google Scholar
  34. Loture, R. de, Histoire de la grande pêche de Terre-Neuve. Paris, 1949Google Scholar
  35. Mercer, G. A., The Province of Newfoundland and Labrador: Geographical Aspects. Ottawa, 1970Google Scholar
  36. Perlin, A. B., The Story of Newfoundland, 1497–1959. St John’s, 1959Google Scholar
  37. Tanner, V., Outlines of Geography. Life and Customs of Newfoundland-Labrador. 2 vols. Helsinki, 1944, and Toronto, 1947Google Scholar
  38. Taylor, T. G., Newfoundland: A Study of Settlement. Toronto, 1946Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Paxton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations