• John Paxton
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


Since the Middle Ages Finland was a part of the realm of Sweden. In the 18th century parts of south-eastern Finland were conquered by Russia, and the rest of the country was ceded to Russia by the peace treaty of Hamina in 1809. Finland became an autonomous grand-duchy which retained its previous laws and institutions under its Grand Duke, the Emperor of Russia. After the Russian revolution Finland declared itself independent on 6 Dec. 1917. The Civil War began in Jan. 1918 between the ‘whites’ and ‘reds’, the latter being supported by Russian bolshevik troops. The defeat of the red guards in May 1918 consequently meant freeing the country from Russian troops. A peace treaty with Soviet Russia was signed in 1920.

Suomen Tasavalta—Republiken Finland


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Books of Reference

  1. Statistical Information: The Central Statistical Office (Tilastokeskus, Swedish: Statistikcentra-len: address: PO Box 504, SF-00101 Helsinki 10) was founded in 1865 to replace earlier official statistical services dating from 1749 (in united Sweden-Finland). Statistics on foreign trade, agriculture, forestry, navigation, health and social welfare are produced by other state authorities. Its publications include: Statistical Yearbook of Finland (from 1879)and Bulletin of Statistics (monthly, from 1924). A bibliography of all official statistics of Finland was pub-ished in Finnish. Swedish and English in Statistical publications 1856–1979. Helsinki, 1980. Constitution Act and Parliament Act of Finland. Helsinki. 1978Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Paxton

There are no affiliations available

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