Pitcairn Island (1–75 sq. miles; 4–6 sq. km) is situated in the Pacific Ocean, nearly equidistant from New Zealand and Panama (25° 04’ S. lat., 130° 06’ W. long.). It was discovered by Carteret in 1767, but remained uninhabited until 1790, when it was occupied by 9 mutineers of HMS Bount. with 12 women and 6 men from Tahiti. Nothing was known of their existence until the island was visited in 1808. In 1856 the population having become too large for the island’s resources, the inhabitants (194 in number) were, at their own request, removed to Norfolk Island; but 43 of them returned in 1859–64. The population has been declining and on 30 June 1975 it was 70.