A revolution, inspired by the USA, led to the separation of Panama from the United States of Colombia and the declaration of its independence on 3 Nov. 1903. The de facto Government was on 13 Nov. recognized by the USA, and soon afterwards by the other Powers. In 1914 Colombia agreed to recognize the independence of Panama. This treaty was ratified by the USA and Colombia in 1921, and on 8 May 1924 diplomatic relations between Colombia and Panama were established.
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Books of Reference
- Statistical Information. The Comptroller-General of the Republic (Contraloria General de la República, Calle 35 y Avenida 6, Panama City) publishes an annual report and other statistical publications.Google Scholar
- Fiscal Survey of Panamá. Johns Hopkins Press, 1964Google Scholar
- Biesanz, J. M., The People of Panama. Columbia Univ. Press, 1955Google Scholar
- Castillero, Ernesto J., Historia de Panama. 5th ed. Panama City, 1965Google Scholar
- Howarth, D., The Golden Isthmus. London, 1966Google Scholar
- Larsen, H. and M., The forests of Panama. London, 1964Google Scholar
- Susto, J. A., An Introduction to Panamanian Bibliography (Publications of the National Library, No. 4). Panama, 1946Google Scholar
- National Library. Bibliotcca Nacional, Departamento de Información. Calle 22, Panama.Google Scholar
- Statistical Information. The Panama Canal Information Office, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. Information Officer: Frank A. Baldwin.Google Scholar
- Annual Reports on the Panama Canal, by the Governor of the Canal Zone Rules and Regulations Governing Navigation of the Panama Canal. Balboa Heights, CZ or Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Cameron, I., The Impossible Dream. London, 1972Google Scholar
- Du Val, M. Y., Cadiz to Cathay: The Diplomatic Struggle for the Panama Canal. 2nd ed. Stanford Univ. Press, 1947.—And the Mountains will Move: The Building of the Panama Canal. Stanford Univ. Press, 1947Google Scholar