After the death of George Kastriota—popularly known as Skanderbeg—in 1467 Albania passed under nominal or actual Turkish suzerainty until 1912. The independence of Albania was proclaimed at Vlonë (Valona) on 28 Nov. 1912, and the London conference of ambassadors decided upon its frontiers and nominated as its ruler Prince William of Wied, who arrived at Durrës (Durazzo) on 7 March 1914, but on 3 Sept. 1914 left the country, which fell into a state of anarchy. By the secret Pact of London of 26 April 1915 provision was made for the partition of Albania; but this arrangement was repudiated by Italy on 3 June 1917, when the Italian C.-in-C. in Albania proclaimed at Gjirokastër (Argyrocastro) the independence of Albania. In Jan. 1925 the country was proclaimed a republic and on 1 Sept. 1928 a monarchy. Ahmed Beg Zogu, President of the Republic since 31 Jan. 1925, reigned as King Zog till April 1939, when, on the occupation of the country by the Italians, he fled to England. After the liberation he was formally deposed in absentia, on 2 Jan 1946. During the years 1939–44 the country was overrun by Italians and Germans The official Albanian date of the liberation is 29 Nov. 1944.
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