• S. H. Steinberg
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


In 1863 the Imperial Court in Kyoto tried to nullify the policy of the Shogun government in Yedo, which from 1854 had, under American pressure, opened the country (closed to foreigners since 1638) to American and European trade, amounting in 1863 to £812,350 imports and £2,674,760 exports. The bombardment of Kagoshima by British warships (1863) and of Shimonoseki by an international fleet (1864) forced the Emperor to yield, but intense popular support and the power of the feudal magnates (daimyo) allowed the new Emperor Meiji (1867–1912) to break the century-old power of the shogunate and to establish the imperial administration.



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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Steinberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Royal Historical SocietyUK

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