In 1863 the territory that is now Iraq and used to be called Mesopotamia comprised the vilayets of Mosul, Baghdad and Basra, distant provinces of the Ottoman empire. Turkish sovereignty was only nominal, and the provincial rulers themselves maintained only a precarious control over the desert Arabs of the west and the mountain Kurds of the north. The population numbered about 3m. and supported itself by trade, on the overland route to India, and agriculture.
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Books of Reference
- International Bank Mission: The Economic Development of Iraq. Johns Hopkins Univ., 1952Google Scholar
- Iversen, C., Report on Monetary Policy in Irac. Copenhagen, 1954Google Scholar
- Langley, K. M., The Industrialization of Iraq. Harvard Univ. Press, 1961Google Scholar
- Lloyd, Seton, Twin Rivers: A brief History of Iraq from the earliest times to the present day. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1947Google Scholar
- Longrigg, S., and Stoakes, F., Iraq. London, 1959Google Scholar
- Wirth, E., Agrargeographie des Irak. Hamburg, 1962Google Scholar