In 1863 Germany was a loose federation of 35 sovereign principalities and 4 free cities. The German Federation included an empire (Austria), 5 kingdoms (Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony and Württemberg), an electorate, 7 grand duchies, 10 duchies, 10 principalities, a landgraviate and the free cities of Bremen, Frankfurt-on-Main, Hamburg and Lübeck. The seat of the Federal Parliament, a permanent congress of the German ambassadors, was Frankfurt-on-Main. The king of Denmark as duke of Holstein and Lauenburg, and the king of the Netherlands as grand-duke of Luxembourg and Limburg, belonged to the Federation, while the greater part of the Austrian monarchy and the eastern provinces of Prussia did not.
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Books of Reference
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