• S. H. Steinberg
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)


In 1863 Germany was a loose federation of 35 sovereign principalities and 4 free cities. The German Federation included an empire (Austria), 5 kingdoms (Prussia, Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony and Württemberg), an electorate, 7 grand duchies, 10 duchies, 10 principalities, a landgraviate and the free cities of Bremen, Frankfurt-on-Main, Hamburg and Lübeck. The seat of the Federal Parliament, a permanent congress of the German ambassadors, was Frankfurt-on-Main. The king of Denmark as duke of Holstein and Lauenburg, and the king of the Netherlands as grand-duke of Luxembourg and Limburg, belonged to the Federation, while the greater part of the Austrian monarchy and the eastern provinces of Prussia did not.


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Books of Reference

  1. Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918–45. HMSO. 1949 ff.Google Scholar
  2. Documents on Germany under Occupation, 1945–54. Ed. B. Ruhm von Oppen. R. Inst, of Int. Affairs, 1955Google Scholar
  3. Dickinson, R. E., The Regions of Germany. London, 1945Google Scholar
  4. Wiskemann, E., Germany’s Eastern Neighbours. R. Inst. of Int. Affairs, 1956Google Scholar
  5. Zine, H., The United States in Germany. 1944–55. New York, 1957Google Scholar
  6. Jahrbuch der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, ed. Institut für Zeitgeschichte (latest issue, 1961).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1963

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Steinberg
    • 1
  1. 1.The Royal Historical SocietyUK

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