Advertisement

Rome, See and Church of

Città del Vaticano
  • M. Epstein
Part of the The Statesman’s Yearbook book series (SYBK)

Abstract

For many centuries until Pins IX’s reign, with some comparatively short breaks, the Popes or Roman Pontiffs bore temporal swayover a territory stretching across Mid-Italy from sea to sea and comprising an area of some 16,000 square miles, with a population finally of some 3,125,000 souls. Of this dominion the whole has been incorporated with the Italian Kingdom. Furthermore, by an Italian law dated May 13, 1871, there was guaranteed to His Holiness and his successors for ever, besides the use of the Vatican and Lateran palaces and the villa of Castel Gandolfo, a yearly income of 3,225,000 lire, but this allowance remained unclaimed and unpaid until February 11, 1929, when a settlement of the ‘Roman question’ was arrived at by three treaties between the Italian Government and the Vatican. On that day there was signed (1) a Political Treaty, which recognized the full and independent sovereignty of the Holy See in the city of the Vatican ; (2) a Concordat, to regulate the condition of religion and of the Church in Italy ; and (3) a Financial Convention, in accordance with which the Holy See shall receive 750,000,000 lire in cash and 1,000,000,000 lire in Italian 5 per cent. State bonds. This sum is to be a definitive settlement of all the financial claims of the Holy See against Italy in consequence of the loss of its temporal power in 1870. The treaty and concordat were ratified and the sum of 750,000,000 lire paid on June 7, 1929.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Books of Reference

  1. Acta Apostolicæ Sedis Eomæ. Rome. Monthly.Google Scholar
  2. Annuario Pontificio. Rome. Annual.Google Scholar
  3. The Catholic Directory. London. Annual.Google Scholar
  4. Catholic Encyclopaedia. 16 vols. New York, 1907.Google Scholar
  5. Codex Juris Canonici Pii X Pontificis Maximi iussu digestus Benedicti Papæ XV auctoritate promulgatus (Praefatione Emi Petri Card. Gasparri).Google Scholar
  6. Addis (Will E.) ana Arnold (Thos.), A Catholic Dictionary. 7th ed., revised by T, B. Scannen, D.D. London, 1905.Google Scholar
  7. Armellini (Cav. Mariano), Le Chiese di Roma dal Secolo IV al XIX. 2nd ed. Roma, 1S91.Google Scholar
  8. —Gli antichi cimiteri cristiani di Roma e d’Italia, Roma, 1893.Google Scholar
  9. Assemanus (Joseph Aloysius), Codex Liturgicus Ecclesiae Universae. 13 vols. Romae, 1759–66. New edition, Paris, 1902.Google Scholar
  10. Attwater (Donald) (editor), a Dictionary of the Popes: From Peter to Pius XII, London, 1939.Google Scholar
  11. Bagnani (G.), Rome and the Papacy. London, 1929Google Scholar
  12. Baronius (Caesar) and Raynaldus (O.), Annales Ecclesiastici, ed. J. D. Mansi (to 1565). Lucca (1738–1756). 34 vols, (one apparatus and 3 indices). Continued by Laderchi (1566–1571). 3 vols. Rome, 1728–1757, and by Theiner (1572–1585). 3 vols. Rome, 1856.Google Scholar
  13. Barraclough (C.), Papal Provisions. Oxford, 1935.Google Scholar
  14. Bendiscioli (M.), La Politica Della Santa Sede. Florence, 1939.Google Scholar
  15. Bernhart (J.), Le Vatican. Trône du Monde. Paris,1930. English edition, London, 1939.Google Scholar
  16. Brown (H. K.), The Lives of the Popes in the Middle Ages. London, 1929.Google Scholar
  17. Brunengo (Giuseppe), Le Origini della Sovranità Temporale dei Papi. Koma, 1872.Google Scholar
  18. Bullarium Romanum (to Clement XII). Rome, 1739–1762. 14 vols, in 28, and Turin 1857–1872. 24 vols., with continuation (from Clement XIII to 1855). Rome, 1855 sqq. 19 vols. Bullarium of Benedict XIV, issued at Rome, 1746–1757. 4 vols.Google Scholar
  19. Bury (J. B.), History of the Papacy in the Nineteenth Century. London, 1930.Google Scholar
  20. Butler (Dom Cuthbert), The Vatican Council. London, 1930.Google Scholar
  21. Cairoti (L. P.), La Città del Vaticano. Monza, 1929.Google Scholar
  22. Cardella (Lorenzo), Memorie Storiche de’ Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols, Roma, 1792–97.Google Scholar
  23. Carlen (M, Claudia), A Guide to the Encyclicals of the Roman Pontiffs from Leo XIII to the present day (1878–1937). New York, 1939.Google Scholar
  24. Cecchelli (Carlo), The Vatican City. Rome, 1933.Google Scholar
  25. Cristofori (Conte Francesco), Storia dei Cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa dal Secolo V. all Anno del Signore MDCCCLXXXVIII. Roma, 1888.Google Scholar
  26. Dahmen (G. M. H. R.), De heilige Stool en het Statcnstelsel na 1500. The Hague, 1930.Google Scholar
  27. Dictionnaire des Cardinaux and Dictionnaire des Papes, forming vols, xxxi.and xxxii. of Migne’s Nouvelle Encyclopédie Théologique.Google Scholar
  28. Duchesne (Mgr. L.), Liber Pontificalis. 2 vols. Paris, 1886–92.Google Scholar
  29. —Les premiers temps de l’État pontifical. Paris, 1898 [English translation by A. H. Mathew. London, 1908].Google Scholar
  30. — Les Origines du culte chrétien. 3rd ed. Paris, 1902.Google Scholar
  31. Eckhardt (Carl Conrad), The Papacy and World Affairs, as reflected in the secularisation of Politics. Chicago, 1937.Google Scholar
  32. Ehrle (Fr.), Historia bibliothecae Romanorum Pontificum. Rome, 1890.Google Scholar
  33. Fülop-Miller (R.), Leo XIII und unsere Zeit. Zurich, 1935.Google Scholar
  34. —The Power and Secret of the Papacy. London, 1937.Google Scholar
  35. Giannini (A.), I Concordati Postbellici. Milan, 1929.Google Scholar
  36. Govella (Dinu Al), La Cité du Vatican et La Notion d’Etat. Paris, 1933.Google Scholar
  37. Gregorovius (Ferd.), Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter. 4th ed. 8 vols. Stuttgart, 1886–96. New edition by Dr. F. Schillmann. 2 vols. Dresden, 1926. [English translation by Annie Hamilton. 8 vols. London, 1902.]Google Scholar
  38. —Die Grabdenkmäler der Päpste. 2nd and enlarged edition. Leipzig, 1881. [English translation by R. W. Seton-Watson. Westminster, 1903.]Google Scholar
  39. Gwynn (Denis), The Vatican and War in Europe, London, 1941Google Scholar
  40. Henrici (H.), Das Gesetzbuch des Katholischen Kirche. Basel, 1918.Google Scholar
  41. Hergenrother (Card. Joseph), Die katholische Kirche und der christliche Staat in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwickelung. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1872.Google Scholar
  42. —Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte (Revised by Kirsch, J. P.), Gtli ed. 4 vols. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1924–25.Google Scholar
  43. Hoare (F. R.), The Papacy and the Modern State: An Essay on the Political History of the Catholic Church. London, 1940.Google Scholar
  44. Howells (T. B.), The Chair of St. Peter. The Rise and Fall of Papal Power. London, 1935.Google Scholar
  45. Huelsen (C.), Le Chiese di Roma nel medio evo. Florence, 1927.Google Scholar
  46. Jafjé (Philippus), Regesta Pontificum Romanorum ab condita Ecclesia ad annum 1898. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Lipsiae, 1885 and 1888.Google Scholar
  47. Labbeus (Phil.) and Cossartius (Gabriel) (S. J.), Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio. Mansi’s edition, 53 vols. Florentiae, 1759–98, and Paris-Arnhem, 1901–27.Google Scholar
  48. Le Fur (L.), Le Saint-Siège et le Droit des Gens. Paris, 1930.Google Scholar
  49. Loiseau (Charles), Saint Siège et Fascisme. Paris, 1930.Google Scholar
  50. Loomis (Louise R.), The Book of the Popes. New York and London, 1917.Google Scholar
  51. Metin (Mgr Roseret de), La Cité du Vatican. Paris, 1937.Google Scholar
  52. Miele (Mario), La condizione giuridica internazionale della Santa Sede e della Cittá del Vaticano. Miìan, 1937.Google Scholar
  53. Milman (Henry Hart, D.D.), History of Latin Christianity; including that of the Popes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V. 4th ed. 9 vols. London, 1867.Google Scholar
  54. Moroni (Gaetano), Dizionario di Erudizione Storico-Ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols., with 6 index vols. Venezia, 1840–61.Google Scholar
  55. Novaes (Giuseppe de), Elementi della storia de’ Sommi Pontefici co’ loro ritratti in ram e 2nd & enlarged ed., the portraits brought down to that of Pius VI. 16 vols. Siena, 1802–15.Google Scholar
  56. Pastor (Ludwig), Geschichte der Päpste seit dem Ausgang des Mittelalters. 4th ed. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1901, etc. (In progress.) [English translation, 34 vols. London, 1901–41,]Google Scholar
  57. Piola (A.), La Questione Romana nella Storia e nel Diritto. Padua, 1931.Google Scholar
  58. Ranke (Leopold von), Die Römischen Päpste in den letzten vier Jahrhunderten. Svola., viz., vol. i, 8th ed., Leipzig, 1885; vols, ii and ili, 6th ed., Leipzig, 1874. [English translation by Sarah Austin, 4th ed., 3 vols., London, 1886. Another by E. Foster, 7 vols., London, 1853–56.]Google Scholar
  59. Registers of various Roman Pontiff’s, viz., Gregory IX, Innocent IV, Alexander IV, Urban IV, Honorius IV, &c, by divers French Scholars. Paris. (In progress.)Google Scholar
  60. Ridley (F. A.), The Papacy and Fascism. London, 1937.Google Scholar
  61. Rossi (Cav. Giovanni Battista de), La Roma sotterranea descritta ed illustrata. Roma, 1864–97. [English compilation by J. S. Northcote, D.D., and W. R. Brownlow, D.D. New and enlarged ed. 2 vols. London, 1879.]Google Scholar
  62. Salata (Francesco), Per La Storia Diplomatica della Questione Romana. Milan, 1930.Google Scholar
  63. Schmidlin (Josef), Papstgeschichte der neuesten Zeit. 4 vols. Munich, 1939.Google Scholar
  64. Schuster (I.), The Sacramentary. Translated from the Italian by A. Levelis-Marke. Vol. I. London, 1925.Google Scholar
  65. Beides (George), The Vatican; Yesterday, To-day and To-morrow. London, 1934.Google Scholar
  66. Sencourt (R.), The Genius of the Vatican. London, 1935.Google Scholar
  67. Silvagni (David), La Corte e la Società Romana nei secoli XVIII e XIX. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Firenze, 1882–85. [English translation by Fanny Maclaughlin entitled, Rome, its Princes, Priests and People. 3 vols. London, 1885–87.]Google Scholar
  68. Streit (Carolus, S. V. D.), Atlas Hierarchicus: Descriptio Geographica et Statistica totius Ecclesiae Catholicae et Orienti s et Occidentis. Paderborn, 1913.Google Scholar
  69. Trezzi (G.), La Posizione Giuridica della Santa Sede nel Diritto Internazionale. Rome, 1929.Google Scholar
  70. Tuker (M. A. R.), Handbook to Christian and Ecclesiastical Rome. 22nd ed. London, 1925.Google Scholar
  71. Wetter (Heinrich Joseph), and Weite (Benedikt), Kirchenlexicon. 2nd edition. Begun by Card. Joseph Hergenrother and continued by Dr. Franz Kaulen. Freiburg-im-Breisgau 1882–1901. 12 vols, and an index volume.Google Scholar
  72. Williamson (B.), The Treaty of the Lateran. With a Foreword by Cardinal Bourne. London, 1929.Google Scholar
  73. Wilpert (Giuseppe), Die Malereien der Katakomben Roms. 2 vols, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1893 (Italian translation. 2 vols. Rome, 1893).Google Scholar
  74. —Die römischen Mosaiken und Malereien der Kirchlichen Bauten vom IV bis XIII Jahrhundert. 4 vols. Freibürg-im-Breisgau 1916.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1942

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Epstein

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations