Monaco is a small Principality on the Mediterranean, surrounded since 1860 by the French Department of Alpes Maritimes except on the side towards the sea. From 968 it belonged to the house of Grimaldi. In 1715 it passed into the female line, Louise Hippolyte, daughter of Antoine I., heiress of Monaco, marrying Jacques de Goyon Matignon, Count of Thorigny, who took the name and arms of Grimaldi. Antony I. died in 1731, Louise Hippolyte reigning only ten months and dying in 1732. She was succeeded by her husband under the name of Jacques I., who also succeeded Antony L as Duc de Valentinois, and was in his turn succeeded by his son Honoré III This Prince reigned from 1731 until 1793, when his dominions were annexed by France, He died in 1795 and in 1814 his son Honoré IV. recovered the Principality, which was placed under the protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Treaty of Vienna, 1815, Honoré V., who had acted as Regent for his invalid father since the Restoration, became Prince in 1819. He was succeeded in 1841 by Florestan, against whom, in 1848, Mentone and Roccabruna revolted, and declared themselves Free Towns, only to be occupied by the Sardinians. His son Charles III. succeeded in 1856 and sold his rights over these two towns in 1861 to France, to which the Sardinian protectorate was transferred after the cession of Nice and Savoy in that year. Prince Albert I., who acquired fame as an oceanographer, succeeded his father, Charles III., in 1889.