The Republic of Ecuador, which is situated in the north-west of South America, was constituted May 11, 1830, in consequence of a civil war which separated the members of the original Republic of Colombia, founded by Simon Bolivar by uniting the Presidency of Quito to the Vice-Royalty of New Granada and the Captaincy-General of Venezuela, when they threw off the Spanish yoke. The Presidency of Quito became the Republic of Ecuador. Under the present Constitution, promulgated March 26, 1929, the executive is vested in a President, elected directly by the people for a term of four years; there is no Vice-President, but the Minister of the Interior succeeds in the event of a vacancy. The cabinet consists of six ministers. The legislative power is given to a Congress of two Houses; the first consists of 32 senators (chosen for four years) elected in the following manner: one for each province of the Interior and Coast; one for the Oriental provinces; one representative for the Universities; one for Secondary and Special Education; two for Primary and Normal Education; one for the Press, Academies and Scientific Societies; two for Agriculture; two for Commerce; one for Industry; two for Labour; two for the country folk; one for the Army and one for the defence of the Indian race. The Chamber of Deputies (56, serving for two years) is elected on the following basis: one deputy for every 50,000 inhabitants for provinces with a population of over 100,000, and two deputies for provinces with less than 100,000 inhabitants. The Oriental provinces elect one deputy each. Electors are adults who can read and write.
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