Greece gained its independence from Turkey in 1821–29, and by the Protocol of London, of February 3, 1830, was declared a kingdom, under the guarantee of Great Britain, France, and Russia. The crown was accepted by Prince Otto of Bavaria, who ascended the throne January 25, 1833, being under the age of eighteen. He was expelled the Kingdom, after a reign of 29 years, in October, 1862, which event was followed by the election, in 1863, under the directing guidance of the three guaranteeing Powers, of King George I. George I., who was assassinated on March 18, 1913, was succeeded by his son Constantine, who reigned until June 11, 1917, when he was excluded from the throne by the allied Powers. Alexandros, second son of King Constantine, then reigned till his death on October 25, 1920. Constantine returned to Greece on December 19, 1920, reigned until his abdication on September 27, 1922, and died in exile on January 11, 1923. He was succeeded by his eldest son Georgos II, who was forced to leave Greece on December 18, 1923.
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