In November, 1922, a change of capital importance took place in the internal economy of Turkey. Up to that time Constantinople continued to be the residence of the Sultan, and a Government deriving its authority from him still existed there. This Government, however, exerted no effective power outside Constantinople, together with a small adjacent area and another small area adjoining Chanak on the Dardanelles. Except for the small areas mentioned above, the whole of Asia Minor was under the authority of the de facto Government set up at Angora in April, 1920, under the name of the “Government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.” On November 1, 1922, the Grand National Assembly voted a resolution declaring that the office of Sultan had ceased to exist and providing that the office of Caliph, which had hitherto been vested in the person of the Sultan, should be filled by election from among the Princes of the House of Osman. Previous to this the Angora Government had made preparations not only to take delivery of Eastern Thrace from the Greek occupying authorities in accordance with the military Convention concluded at Moudania on October 11, 1922, but also to take over the administration of Constantinople whenever an opportunity offered. On November 4, 1922, General Rafet Pasha, who was in charge of these preparations, declared that he had taken over the administration of Constantinople on behalf of the Angora Government. The same day the Grand. Vizier, Tewfik Pasha, presented the resignation of the, Constantinople Cabinet to the Sultan. The Sultan himself, on November 17, took refuge on board a British warship and left Constantinople. The Grand National Assembly immediately elected to the Caliphate his only cousin Prince Abdul-Medjid, the eldest prince, in male descent, of the House of Osman. Ultimately, on March 2, 1924, the Grand National Assembly decided to abolish the Caliphate altogether, this decision being immediately followed by the expulsion from Turkey of the deposed Caliph and of all the male members of the House of Osman. A further step forward had in the meantime been taken on October 29, 1923, when the Grand National Assembly proclaimed that Turkey was a Republic and elected Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha President of the Republic.
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