Afghánistán is a country of Asia lying between parallels 29° and 38° 20′ of north latitude, and 61° and 72° of east longitude, with a long narrow strip extending to 75° east longitude (Wákhán). On the north-east, the boundary follows a line running generally westward from a fixed point near one of the peaks of the Sarikol Range to Lake Victoria, thence along the line of that branch of the Oxus which issues from the lake, and so, following the course of the Oxus, to Khamiab. From Khamiab, the line runs in a south-westerly direction to Zulfikár, on the river Harí-Rúd, and thence by Kál-i-Kalla to Hashtadan, thence to the south, between Hashtadan and Siah Koh, north of Bandan, the boundary is undefined. The Sistan lake and the Helmund river form the boundary between Siah Koh and Band-i-Seistan, and thence the boundary runs south in a straight line to Koh-i-Malik Siah, where the frontiers of Persia, Afghánistán and Baluchistan meet. Here the boundary turns round and runs generally eastwardly to the Khwája Amran range. The eastern and southern boundaries of Afghánistán long remained uncertain, but the basis of a delimitation was settled, in 1893, at a conference between the Amir Abdur Rahmán and Sir Mortimer Durand, and the boundary agreed upon, with the exception of the Asmar section, has since been demarcated. The Amír agreed that Chitral, Bajaur and Swat should be included within the British sphere of political influence, while he himself was to retain Asmar and the Kunar valley above it, as far as Arnawai; also the tract of Birmal, west of Wazíristán.
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