The Republic of Ecuador, which is situated in the north-west of South America, approximately between latitude 1°40′ north and 6° south, and between 69°20′ east longitude and 90° west, was constituted May 11, 1830, in consequence of a civil war which separated the members of the original Republic of Colombia, founded by Simon Bolivar, by uniting the Presidency of Quito to the Vice-Royalty of New Grenada, and the Captaincy-General of Venezuela, when they threw off the Spanish yoke. Under the present Constitution, promulgated December 28, 1906, the executive is vested in a President, elected for the term of four years, while the legislative power is given to a Congress of two Houses; the first consisting of thirty-two senators, two for each province (chosen for four years), and the second of 48 deputies, on the basis of one deputy for every 30,000 inhabitants, chosen for two years; both elected by adults who can read and write. The Congress meets on the 10th of August of every year at Quito, the capital, without being summoned by the Government. The election of the President takes place in a direct manner by the people. Under the present constitution there is no election for Vice-President. In case of death, or other cause of vacancy in the office of President, he is replaced (1) by the President of the Senate of the Last Congress, and (2) if he should also fail, by the President of the Chamber of Deputies.
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