Portugal has been an independent State since the twelfth century; until 1910 it was a monarchy. The last King was Manoel II. of the house of Braganza-Coburg, born November 15, 1889, younger son of King Carlos I. and Queen Mary Amélie, daughter of Philippe Duc d’Orléans. Manoel II. succeeded to the throne on the assassination of his father and elder brother, Prince Luiz Philip, February 1, 1908. On October 5, 1910, the republic was proclaimed, after a short revolution, and a provisional government established with Dr. Theophilo Braga as the Provisional President (October 5, 1910, to August 24, 1911). The first President of the Republic was Dr. Manoel de Arriaga (August 24, 1911, to May 27, 1915).
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