On October 31, 1918, a revolution broke out in Hungary with the object of establishing a Republic and making the country independent of Austria. On November 13 King Charles issued a letter of abdication, and on November 16, 1918, Hungary was proclaimed an independent Republic (Hungarian People’s Republic), of which Count Michael Karolyi became Provisional President. The two Houses of the Legislature were abolished, and their place taken by a Provisional National Assembly. The Karolyi régime continued until March 22, 1919, when the Count resigned in consequence of an Entente note in reference to the boundary between Hungary and Rumania. Count Karolyi’s Cabinet was succeeded by a Soviet Government, which proclaimed the dictatorship of the proletariat. An opposition Government was, however, soon set up at Arad and Szeged, which with the assistance of the Rumanian army swept away the Soviet Government, and on August 7, 1919, a National Government was again in the Capital. Elections were held on the basis of universal suffrage in January and February 1920, and as a result a bloc composed of parties of the Right was returned to power. The now Parliament proceeded to elect a Regent who was styled officially ‘Protector of the Magyar Republic.’
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